In this chapter, a nonlinear finite element formulation is presented for the three and two dimensional analysis of shells which accounts for large deformation and rotation effects, and accommodates material nonlinearities. The formulation applies to the practically important cases of shells of revolution, tubes, rings, beams, frames, arches, plates and doubly curved shells. Transverse shear deformations and geometric nonlinearities are accounted for. The approach is deduced and adapted from several other works in the area, [13], [115] and [116].

- Degenerated Isoparametric Shell Element
- Computer Implementation and Testing